PLAGIARISM AND CHEATING
While the academic fraternity the world over unanimously agree on free sharing and exchange of knowledge, data, information, views, ideas and opinions, they are simultaneously highly critical of any act of plagiarism and cheating.
Cases of plagiarism are the use of material, ideas, figures, code or data without appropriate acknowledgment or permission (in some cases) of the original source. This may involve submission of material, verbatim or paraphrased, that is authored by another person or published earlier by oneself. Examples of plagiarism include: (a) Reproducing, in whole or part, text/sentences from a report, book, thesis, publication or the internet. (b) Reproducing one’s own previously published data, illustrations, figures, images, or someone else’s data, etc. (c) Taking material from class-notes or downloading material from Internet sites, and incorporating it in one’s class reports, presentations, manuscripts or thesis without citing the original source. (d) Self plagiarism which constitutes copying verbatim from one’s own earlier published work in a journal or conference proceedings without appropriate citations.
Cheating is another form of unacceptable academic behavior and may be classified into different categories: (a) Copying during exams, and copying of homework assignments, term papers or manuscripts. (b) Allowing or facilitating copying, or writing a report or exam for someone else. (c) Using unauthorized material, copying, collaborating when not authorized, and purchasing or borrowing papers or material from various sources (d) Fabricating (making up) or falsifying (manipulating) data and reporting them in thesis and publications.
The following guidelines for academic conduct must be observed by all concerned.
- Use proper methodology for experiments/computational work. Accurately describe, compile data.
- Carefully record and save primary and secondary data such as original pictures, instrument data readouts, laboratory notebooks, and computer folders. There should be minimal digital manipulation of images/photos; the original version should be saved for later scrutiny, if required, and the changes made should be clearly described.
- Ensure robust reproducibility and statistical analysis of experiments and simulations. It is important to be truthful about the data and not to omit some data points to make an impressive figure (commonly known as “cherry picking”).
- Lab notebooks must be well maintained in bound notebooks with printed page numbers to enable checking later during publications or patent. Date should be indicated on each page.
- Write clearly in your own words. It is necessary to resist the temptation to “copy and paste” from the Internet or other sources for class assignments, manuscripts and thesis.
- Give due credit to previous reports, methods, computer programs, etc. with appropriate citations. Material taken from your own published work should also be cited; as mentioned above, it will be considered self-plagiarism otherwise.